Home Health Mental Illness: Types, Symptoms and Treatment

Mental Illness: Types, Symptoms and Treatment

by James Browne
mental illness

Mental illness can have many causes. Many of these are still the subject of research. Biological, psychological and social factors work together in the development of a mental illness. For example, a possible imbalance of messenger substances in the brain, genetic predisposition and living conditions. The generic term “organic mental disorders” summarizes all mental disorders that are directly based on damage to the brain. Previously, these disorders were among others known as “cerebral organic brain syndrome”. The OPS also includes physical illnesses that affect the brain ( e.g. mental disorders in the case of thyroid dysfunction, etc.). Social impairments are usually associated with the OPS.

There are a variety of mental disorders that are organic. The most common is dementia or what is known as delirium. An organic mental disorder (OPS) can be the first appearance of an underlying illness. Or it occurs in the course of an already known illness as a consequence or accompanying phenomenon. The brain is more capable of regeneration than originally thought, and in many cases, helpful support can be provided.

What are the causes of organic mental disorders or mental illness (OPS)?

In principle, OPS is a description of certain symptom complexes. Especially with dementia, the research was able to clarify the formation mechanisms. In other areas, it is still largely unclear how exactly OPS comes about.

The following general mechanisms can, for example, lead to damage to brain matter or functions and subsequently to OPS:

  • Traumatic brain injuries e.g. bleeding,
  • Circulatory disorders in the brain ( e.g. cerebral infarction),
  • Cardiovascular diseases ( e.g. Heart attack)
  • Disorders of the immune system ( e.g. as part of an autoimmune disease (such as multiple sclerosis),
  • Infections – especially of the central nervous system ( e.g. Encephalitis, Meningoencephalitis), in older frail people too
  • lung infection, Urinary tract infections or sepsis), HIV encephalopathy HIV-related dementia
  • Brain tumors,
  • epilepsy,
  • Metabolic disorders ( e.g. hypoglycemia, excessively high blood sugar, electrolyte imbalances)
  • Prions (the smallest protein particles) – if they are genetically predisposed,
  • Medicines ( e.g. the anti-Parkinsonian drug levodopa) etc.

Often there is so-called comorbidity. This means that the patient also suffers from other psychological problems. For example, a serious physical illness and the resulting restrictions increase the risk of psychological stress. Other mental illnesses that are not directly organically caused may already exist or occur (again). These are not directly caused by damage or functional disorders of the brain, but most arise from a number of different factors ( e.g. social stress, genetic predisposition, imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain, etc. ).

What forms of OPS are there?

In OPS, there are basically two basic divisions:

Primary damage to the brain: with a direct change in the brain substance, e.g. brain tumor.
Secondary damage to the brain: through other physical diseases, e.g. through metabolic products that damage nerve cells.
There are a variety of mental disorders that are organic. Brain damage leads to individually different complaints. This is also due to the fact that the coping mechanisms are different. Among other things, they depend on the following factors:

  1. Age,
  2. general health,
  3. previous illnesses
  4. current diseases of personality and
    social support.

The following are the most important types of organic mental disorders.

Organic amnesiac syndrome

The term “amnesiac syndrome” encompasses a memory impairment (new information) and memory loss. The following features exist:

  • Learning new things is difficult
  • Disturbed memory (events that occurred earlier can be better remembered)
  • Brain damage ( e.g. due to an injury, insufficient oxygen supply, carbon monoxide poisoning, lack of thiamine, hypoglycemia) or brain disease ( e.g. bleeding, inflammation).
  • Changes in emotional life can also occur. Symptoms of amnesia are also possible. The memory disorders can be of varying duration and – depending on the cause and individual prognosis – regress again if necessary.

Delirium

Delirium is an acute illness that requires immediate medical attention. It is also subject to fluctuations in the daytime. Symptoms are more pronounced at night.

The symptoms of delirium are:

  • Disorders of consciousness (from drowsiness to coma) and alertness,
  • Disorders of the cognition,
  • Perception disorders ( e.g. hallucinations, delusional ideas),
  • Long-term memory disorders, “Film cracks”, “Black-out”,
  • Sleep disorders ( e.g. insomnia, reversal of day-night rhythm, nightmares), reduced or increased urge to move or sudden changes between them,
  • Emotional impairments such as depression, fear, irritability, mania, indifference, perplexity.

The main risk factors for delirium include:

  1. the age (small children and very old people),
  2. Brain damage ( e.g. due to dementia),
  3. alcoholism/Drug consumption,
  4. Diabetes mellitus,
  5. Cancer,
  6. Malnutrition, an earlier one Delirium acute regressive disorder of consciousness

Organic Affective Disorder & Organic Emotionally Labile Disorder

Affective disorders affect mood. Depression is a disease that manifests itself, among other things, by a depressed mood, a feeling of hopelessness or social withdrawal. There are different forms of depression, which differ in terms of the duration and severity of the illness.

The Organic depressive disorders, there is brain damage or brain dysfunction. For example:

  • stroke,
  • dementia,
  • Traumatic brain injury,
  • Brain tumors,
  • epilepsy,
  • multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease.

Also, manic symptoms can be organic ( e.g. damage to the frontal lobe of the brain). A so-called “affect incontinence” (affect lability) is a condition in which laughter or crying do not match the mood and situation in terms of extent and type – caused by various brain damage.

Organic anxiety disorder

Organic anxiety disorders – like non-organic ones – have many facets, e.g. phobias (specific fears of situations/animals etc. ) or panic attacks.

The most common causes include:

  1. Brain disorders ( eg, cerebral infarction and hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, migraines, Parkinson’s disease)
  2. internal diseases ( e.g. hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, heart defects) and Medicines/drugs ( e.g. thyroxine, caffeine, cocaine, alcohol (withdrawal), withdrawal from sedatives).

Organic delusional disorder

A delusion is a belief that has no realistic background and cannot be understood by anyone but the person affected ( e.g. paranoia or relationship mania). It is an absolute belief in the reality of the person concerned. For them this idea is real. Madness is not to be equated with one schizophrenia with other symptoms. Delusional ideas have different causes, sometimes organic, for example in the context of dementia or after brain infections or injuries. Most often the delusion to be pursued or robbed occurs.

Organic personality and behavior disorder

Personality disorders express themselves in rigid feelings and behaviors. They affect the entire perception, thinking, feeling and behavior of a person. Behavioral disorders can have a wide variety of forms. Organic personality and behavior disorders there is a disease, damage or functional disorder of the brain ( e.g. degeneration in the anterior or temporal lobe of the brain, traumatic brain injury, infarction in the anterior lobe of the brain, bleeding). The patient often does not perceive this personality change himself/herself.

What are the causes of organic mental disorders (OPS)?
What forms of mental illness are there?
How is the diagnosis made?
How is the treatment carried out health centers?
Whom can I ask?
What are the treatments offered by the psychiatric clinic?
How are the costs going to be covered?

There are a variety of mental disorders that are organic. The most common is dementia or what is known as delirium. An organic mental disorder (OPS) can be the first appearance of an underlying illness. Or it occurs in the course of an already known illness as a consequence or accompanying phenomenon. The brain is more capable of regeneration than originally thought, and in many cases, helpful support can be provided.

Related Posts

Leave a Comment